Layered Materials and Structures Lab (LMSL)

Purdue School of Engineering and Technology

In the era of the Internet of Things and 4th industrial revolution, soon every object that we interact with will be smart and multifunctional. To pack more and more functions in one object, we need to take advantage of every atomic layer to enhance performance and improve properties. Designing layered materials and structures, from the nano to the macro scale, would be the inevitable choice for the future of objects.  

2D Layered Materials

Property Tuning

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Layered Structures

2D transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes)

Few atom-thick 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) family is one of the rapidly expanding 2D materials beyond graphene. About 30 different MXene compositions have been synthesized, and structures and properties of about 60 MXenes have been theoretically predicted. The versatile chemistry of MXenes allows the tuning of properties for applications including energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, photonics, reinforcement for composites, water purification, gas- and biosensors, lubrication, and photo-, electro- and chemical catalysis.

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MXenes reported to date

MXenes-MAX_Periodic Table_Anasori_August

Periodic tables of MXenes and MAX phases


Further reading:

The Rise of MXenes: Y. Gogotsi, B. Anasori, ACS Nano, 13 (2019): Open access link

MXenes Book: B. Anasori, Y. Gogotsi, 2D Metal Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes), Structures, Properties and Applications, Springer-Nature 2019 Link


B. Anasori, M. R. Lukatskaya, Y. Gogotsi, 2D Metal Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes) for Energy StorageNature Reviews Materials, 2, 16098 (2017). [DOI]

Property tuning for different applications


MXene sheets have a 2D core of transition metal carbide and a surface of transition metal oxide. The availability of solid solutions, the control of surface terminations and a recent discovery of multi-transition metal layered MXenes offer the potential for the synthesis of many new structures.​


MXenes applications reported to date on Web of Science (August 2019)

Further reading:

The Rise of MXenes, Y. Gogotsi, B. Anasori, ACS Nano, 13, 8 (2019). Open access link

B. Anasori, et al., Two-Dimensional, Ordered, Double Transition Metals Carbides (MXenes), ACS Nano, 9, 9507-9516 (2015). [DOI]


B. Anasori et al., Controlling of Electronic Properties of 2D Carbides (MXenes) by Manipulating Their Transition Metal Layers, Nanoscale Horizons, 1, 227-334 (2016).  [DOI]

Layered structural composites

The use of ~1-nm thick MXenes has given great opportunities to fabricate smaller, lighter, faster and more efficient layered composites for a variety of applications such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding devices. 

Further reading:

F. Shahzad, M. Alhabeb, C. B. Hatter, B. Anasori, M. H. Soon, C. M. Koo, Y. Gogotsi, Electromagnetic Interference  Shielding  with  2D  Transition  Metal  Carbide  (MXenes), Science, 353, 1137-1140 (2016).

M. Boota, B. Anasori, C. A. Voigt, M-Q. Zhao, M. W. Barsoum, Y. Gogotsi, Pseudocapacitive Electrodes Produced by Oxidant-free Polymerization of Pyrrole Between the Layers of 2D Titanium Carbide (MXene), Advanced Materials, 28, 1517-1522 (2016).